COMPUTER MANAGED INSTRUCTION ( CMI)
The computer managed instruction is the label for a broad category of computer based tool applications designed to assist the teacher or school administration in the management of the instructional process . Good instructional management decisions are based on accurate and upto date information on the performance and progress of each student . Applications of computer managed instruction can be used to gather data, store , update , retrieve , analyse ,and report such information . Most computer managed instruction applications are special -purpose data management tools . Applications of computer managed instruction vary from simple student grade record book programmes to sophisticated diagnostic and prescriptive systems . Each of these applications is discussed in the following sections .
STUDENT'S COMPUTER GRADE BOOK - used to store and record of students' scores or grades on assignments or tests. Special purpose data management programmes for similar tests are written and are ready available like Foxpro , Dbase , MS Access , MS Excel .these spread sheets are used to record the data of student's scores or grades of student's assignments and tests .Such Programmes have the following menu of options :
Begin a new class file
Open an existing file
Add student names to the file
Add assignment and test scores to the file
Retrieve and modify student records
Delete if required student record from the file
Print student records or class reports from the file
The above mentioned options help to generate reports for individual students or for the class as a whole .
The class report shows the actual final grade for each student in the class. The class report includes scores for all the students and some summary information and the students records are arranged in descending order . Thus the computer helps to create student report card which are sent to parents and inform student's progress.
For the teachers the Grade book is valuable management tool,can automatically compute final grades , has ability to generate interim student report on individual progress. These data bases are saved in diskettes with backup copies and kept safely under security .
The progress reports are effectively used in counseling students and ask for help and support of parents .
Computer managed instruction is used in scoring tests . This application has been used to score national standardized tests . There are centralized testing centres where the tests are scored by computers . In such system the student mark their answers on special answer sheets which can be read by a mark sensing device or optical scanning device which are connected to computer and the responses are stored on computer for further analysis .
After the analysis the computer is used to print reports with following information :
1. Test scores in descending order and alphabetically arranged.
2. Analysis of test items for diagnostic purposes
3. The mean scores of the class , the skewedness of the test and the reliability of the test .
4. Sophisticated computer managed instruction packages automatically stores the scores of each student in appropriate student record book .
Another valuable computer managed instruction application is the use of computer to generate the tests themselves . The computer generates the tests by randomly selecting items from a file of test items stored on a floppy diskette or hard disk .the items of test are organised into categories according to difficulty , topics , objectives ,and so ,on . This organisation makes it possible to for the generation program to construct a test with items selected according to the blue print of the test .
The test generated allows teacher to tailor the test to meet their specific needs by entering the following information :
Name of test -item file
No of parallel test forms that can be generated
No of items that should be chosen to fit the blue print of the test
No of copies that should be printed
Whether the test items should be grouped or randomly distributed
Directions to be printed at the beginning of the test .
The programme also prints a correct-answer key for each test form .
The test generation programme may not be advantageous than the manual test generation but offers many advantages when used in individualised mastery instruction .
In Individualised instruction the teacher finds difficult to cater to each student separately , hence the computer managed instruction provides a solution by providing a variety of generated tests .
Thus by combining computer test generation , computer scoring , and computer grade book applications into one integrated system , the testing , tracking , and reporting of student progress can all be automated .
TERMINAL-BASED COMPUTER MANAGED INSTRUCTION :
COMPUTER MANAGED INSTRUCTION allows students to respond to test items on a computer or terminal connected to mini computer . The student responds to the items by typing the answers on the keyboard or using some other input device . The computer scores the student's responses and provides the total score on completion of the exam . The student scores are stored in the computer for susequent analysis . Some terminal - based computer managed systems also provide feedback . On completion of the test the student are shown the items they missed and the correct answers .
It is easy to handle fill in the blanks questions or short answer type question on a terminal based test . But it is difficult to mark on essay questions . Such question's anwers shld be graded manually and later add the scores to student's records of marks on the computer .
SOPHISTICATED COMPUTER MANAGED INSTRUCTION SYSTEMS:
It includes test generation , test scoring , storing of student progress data and generation of reports . However other features are also possible . A CMI system can be used to provide diagnostic prescriptions . The computer can analyse the student's pattern of responses and determine areas of strength and weakness. The evaluation information can be used to improve the quality of the instruction and test items .
Many stand -alone drill -and -practice and tutorial programmes include many elements of computer managed instruction . A drill-and-practice programme designed to help student to learn math facts keep record of student's performance ,and produce reports showing each sutdent's progress . A tutorial programme may include a test at the end of each unit that is presented and scored by the computer .
INTEGRATED LEARNING SYSTEMS have been developed which incorporate most of the elements of computer managed instruction with a large and comprehensive set of interrelated tutor applications such as drill -and -practice , tutorial , simulation , game , and problem solving programmes . These systems not only provide instructions but also diagnosis , prescription , record keeping ,and other management functions .
Sophisticated computer managed instruction requires considerable planning , creative problem solving and resources .It is very effective for individualised mastery learning but on the other hand it requires the teacher to be competent with the utilisation of the computer .