The VALUES of SIMULATIONS are:
Less risk in reality , potential mistake costs no harm , student learn from mistake and do it correctly next time .
The experiences are repeatable , student can review several times till it naturalizes and become automatic .
Training costs reduced -plane crash may cost millions of dollars ,and lives lost . Offers training to unskilled students , save money in the long run .
Simulations are frequently more convenient than real life situation . With the use of many or multiple micro-computers many student can be involved in a simulation at the same time . Besides it can be used as many times and at any time .
Simulations minimize the negative effects of time . Through simulations time can be compressed so that the student can experience the critical elements of the phenomenon several times within a short period , or a single period . For example the beating of human heart , the flow of data from computer to the CPU or the combustion of engine become open to study through simulation .
Simulation helps to focus on specific aspects of the phenomenon through colour graphics , sound effects , animation , and increased textual descriptions . useful aspects of the situation are enhanced and extraneous factors being reduced.
With interactive simulations student manipulate the environment in the simulation and hence learn to formulate hypothesis , perform experiments , verify the assumptions , besides allow student to gain valuable experience in solving problems .
games have certain critical attributes as described
free participation with no force required
It is difficult to teach all areas of curriculum with interest hence educational games have great strength to promote student motivation. This is especially in case of verbal information or discrimination tasks that require memorization.
fun, providing recreation
knowledge of rules that allow or prohibit certain actions and what constitutes rewards and winning the game
Elements of competition or challenge against an opponent or a task.
Computer games have definite, pre established rules that pose challenges to studentsthus creating a competitive environment.
MOTIVATIONAL ATTRIBUTES :
Successful educational games have one or more of the following individual factors of motivation
Challenge - this seems to depend on appropriate goals , uncertain outcomes , performance feedback , and self esteem .
Curiosity - a good game should be able to provide a moderate level of competent complexity, which should be familiar and not totally foreign, also interest along with a bit of surprise and intrigue (naively).
Control - Students sense of control is enhanced when players are given choices and allowed to make decisions. There are three characteristics for enhancing control in educational games: Contingency, Choice and Power.
As students play games their actions result in illusion of power which may have powerful and dramatic effect on them.
Fantasy - Some games create or evoke mental images of physical or social situations that are not actually present. Fantasy allows emotional outlet needs of children and encourages identification with imagined characters or contexts. It allows analogies that facilitate understanding. Fantasy establishes relationships with tasks, for example in MICROBES the student learn about the human anatomy by travelling through the bloodstream in a miniature submarine .
Interpersonal Motivations : are COOPERATION , COMPETITION , AND SOCIAL RECOGNITION .
ALSO use of logic , reasoning and organizational skills .
Examples of games are Geo-Race U.S.A , Haunted House ,Timwin , Snooper Trooper .